reasonably foreseeable loss

Damage is only 'not reasonably foreseeable' if it was thought to physically impossible or so 'far fetched' that a reasonable person would completely disregard it. He also suffered from severe depression, said Gary. Definition of Foreseeable Losses Foreseeable Losses means losses directly or indirectly arising from the matter in question to the extent that they would be considered reasonably foreseeable under the principles of English Law but excluding punitive damages; Sample 1 Based on 1 documents Depending on the size of the property and the extent of the business, repairs could take weeks or months. Damages are likely to be limited to those reasonably foreseeable by the defendant. If we are guilty of gross negligence, our liability shall be restricted to the foreseeable loss which is typical under the contract. The legal basis for monitoring cosmetics in the European Union is derived from Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC. Harm must be (1) reasonably foreseeable (2) there must be a relationship of proximity between the plaintiff and defendant and (3) it must be 'fair, just and reasonable' to impose liability. What would, typically, have been reasonably foreseeable in this instance would have been the possibility of a fire starting somewhere in the building itself. Only those causes that are reasonably foreseeable fit naturally into the chain. Calculating different loss estimates is essential in helping insurers determine how much coverage their clients need to purchase and how much the insurers are at risk of paying out under different types of claims. In considering the actual loss in a particular case, one of the most common issues that has arisen in litigation is whether the harm was “reasonably foreseeable.” In determining whether loss is reasonably foreseeable, courts have found that the actual loss must have a causal link to the conduct of the defendant. A conspiracy is an agreement between two or more people to commit a crime or unlawful act or a lawful act by unlawful means. As noted above, these guidelines apply to borrowers who are still current in their payments, but whose default is reasonably foreseeable. Despite this conservative development paradigm the Slackware team aims to deliver up-to-date software, on at least an annual basis. foreseeable unless it is known; and, conversely, a risk of very low probability will be foreseeable if it is known. The loss must be reasonably foreseeable and not too remote. The instant court held the fire was reasonably foreseeable. The destruction of the warehouse would cause a massive business interruption that would substantially damage the company's results, not to mention hurt its reputation with consumers in the long run. The Privy Council held that a party can only be held liable for damage that was reasonably foreseeable. The foreseeability test is used to determine whether the person causing the injury should have reasonably foreseen the consequences of the actions leading to the loss or injury. Not only would the retailer have lost inventory it already paid for, but it would experience a business interruption resulting from the destruction of its inventory, its inability to fulfill customer orders, and its inability to take advantage of the holiday shopping period. Since inception, Slackware has had at least one release per year. In negligence, the test of causation not only requires that the defendant was the cause in fact, but also requires that the loss or damage sustained by the claimant was not too remote. Risky Business : “Foreseeable” Damages in Commercial Transactions. Such a thing was not reasonably foreseeable. MFL is a worst-case situation in which the claim for damages and losses are significant. REASONABLE AND FORESEEABLE DAMAGES FOR BREACH OF AN INSURANCE CONTRACT Bob G. Freemon, Jr. Damages, where a reasonably foreseeable loss occurred as a result of a failure to comply with a guarantee. Other thresholds which can reflect the impact of smaller, yet still detrimental, losses to the company. A civil commotion is public gathering of a large number of people that results in property damage and other mayhem. Where the risk of harm is very small, or the harm not really serious, the reasonable person will not foresee the possibility of harm to others. Negligence can be generally defined as conduct that is culpable because it falls short of what a reasonable person would do to protect another individual from foreseeable risks of harm. What Makes Damages Foreseeable? I. If anything happens to this warehouse, it would be a huge blow to the retailer. In 13 United States v. If the likelihood of harm is relatively great, or the consequences serious, the possibility of harm will normally be reasonably foreseeable. However, the owner of the warehouse also typically chooses to protect the business in the event of less all-encompassing damage, such as water damage of products after a roof leak. In tort, liability only extends to damage or loss which is a reasonably foreseeable consequence of the negligent act giving rise to it. The rights of a third party can then only be terminated or withdrawn without her consent if it is reasonably foreseeable that she would rely upon them. 339, 162 N. E. 99 (1928). Normal loss expectancy assumes that all protection systems worked correctly, and the damage is limited to 10% of the property’s insured value. The maximum foreseeable loss refers to the worst-case scenario that a company might potentially face should an adverse event occur. foreseeable if it is “harm that the defendant knew or, under the circumstances, reasonably should have known, was a potential result of the offense.”15All reasonably foreseeable losses that flow directly, or indirectly, from a defendant’s conduct should be included in the loss … Littlewoods appealed, arguing it had no knowledge of previous attempts to start the fires. It was so held in The Wagon Mound II. Financial losses are usually simple to quantify but in complex cases which involve loss of pension entitlements and future loss projections, the instructing solicitor will usually employ a specialist expert actuary or accountant to assist with the quantification of the loss. Foreseeable risk is a common affirmative defense put up as a response by defendants in lawsuits for negligence. However, she denied that the damage was reasonably foreseeable to her as an ordinary private owner of an individual residential property. This 1976 directive requires that cosmetic products 'must not cause damage to human health when applied under normal or reasonably foreseeable conditions of use'. That B was further injured by an event within a foreseen class does not of itself require a court to hold that every incident falling within that class is a natural link in the chain. The policy acknowledges the potential loss of business, called business interruption, which is likely unavoidable while repairs to the property are ongoing. Importance of Reasonable Foreseeability in Negligence Claims At law, certain relationships are recognized to give rise to a prima facie duty of care. The safety officer of a company with marketed cosmetics files product information, including a safety report, in electronic or other format to the competent authority of the Member State. That's because the building’s passive safeguards partially limited the damage, but the most critical active one did not. But, in contract law, unlike in tort law, the extent of damages recoverable has been limited to the type of loss that was reasonably foreseeable at the time of making the contract. For "Remoteness of vesting" see instead Rule against perpetuities.. Fletcher v Rylands ([1866] LR 1 Ex 265)The case of Donoghue v Ste… Thus, new versions are released continuously and within a reasonably foreseeable time frame. This principle governs the recovery of all compensatory damages, whether the underlying claim is based on contract, tort, or both. [103] Another textual difference between the CISG and U.S. law concerns whether foreseeability is … A claim for a maximum foreseeable loss is extensive, as it will include not just physical losses, such as the property housing the business and the products, supplies, and equipment owned by the company, but also the impact the adverse event had on the day-to-day running of the operations. The loss must be reasonably foreseeable and not too remote. Checo is entitled to be compensated for all reasonably foreseeable loss caused by the tort. Reasonable foreseeability is a set of common law principles which operate to limit compensation recoverable by an innocent party for breach of contract and for tortious loss. The type of losses recoverable under an indemnity can be far broader than those that can be claimed in tort. INTRODUCTION The field of insurance defense law has been extensively altered in recent years by the evolution of a number of theories giving an insured the right to claim damages for breach of contract beyond the amounts owed under the policy. Staff at the school denied having knowledge of the affair and the education department claimed the affair caused the student no further harm than his disability and that it was not reasonably foreseeable. Replacement of the goods those of an identical type. Baudouin ruled the reasonably foreseeable natural death requirement was “disproportionate” and infringed on Truchon and Gladu’s rights. The percentage of the property’s total insured value at risk to be decimated by a particular type of loss varies with each policy based on factors which include building construction, the combustibability of the building's contents, the ease with which the contents may be damaged and existing firefighting services in the immediate area. What had actually occurred had been something entirely different. Intuitively, contracting parties in commercial transactions understand that legal consequences follow a breach of contract: If a party fails to deliver a product as promised, the breaching party can be liable for the cost to correct the breach; but what is that cost? As such, the incident was put down as an accident which could not have been prevented. For example, if after the accident the doctor who works on you commits malpractice and injures you further, the defense can argue that it was not the accident, but the incompetent doctor who caused your injury. A consequential loss is an insurance term for an income hit caused by a business's inability to use damaged property or equipment as usual. The concept of reasonableness in the phrase ‘reasonably foreseeable’ is concerned with how much knowledge about risks it is reasonable to attribute to people. Besides MFL, the insurance underwriter considers probable maximum loss and usual loss expectancy for the typical business types. So long as the tearoom was run in the same manner as it was day to day, and to the same safety standards, she was not required to take extra steps to prevent the incident which occurred. foreseeable risk n. a danger which a reasonable person should anticipate as the result from his/her actions. The defendant is reasonably liable for any loss which is reasonably foreseeable from his acts or omissions. The key issue before the court was to decide if the damage was reasonably foreseeable and in particular whether Mrs Kane, as an individual residential owner, knew or ought to have known about the risk of damage. Under Fannie Mae's new guidance, loan servicers can use foreclosure prevention tools to assist distressed borrowers when a borrower demonstrates the need. Arising naturally from the breach; or; In the contemplation of both parties as the probable result of contract breach. It is a best-case loss scenario. Questions arise as to the liability of accomplices for unintended crimes committed by a co-actor, such as whether a getaway driver outside of a building should be responsible for a shooting carried out by an accomplice inside. ... After two brain surgeries, he suffered from hearing loss, loss of co-ordination, and the occasional seizure. Held: even although it was unforeseeable that a child would be injured in such a way in such circumstances, considering that an unattended site such as this would be likely to constitute an allurement for young children it was foreseeable that there was a risk of injury by burning. The purpose of the doctor's duty to take care is to protect the mountaineer against injuries caused by the failure of the knee, not rock falls. In The Empire Jamaica (1955) 1 AER 452, the owners sent their ship to sea without properly licensed officers. The more links, the less likely that consequence may be considered reasonably foreseeable. So if A had heard a weather forecast predicting a storm, the drowning will be a natural outcome. It … However, these act as guidelines for the courts in establishing a duty of care; much of … Checo a droit à être indemnisée de toutes les pertes raisonnablement prévisibles causées par le délit. A valuation clause is a provision in an insurance policy specifying the amount the policyholder will receive if a covered hazard event occurs. You are also entitled to have the goods repaired or replaced if the goods fail to be of acceptable quality and the failure does not amount to a major failure. Apart from this an insured can recover foreseeable damages, beyond the limits of its policy, for breach of a duty to investigate, … And, in another case, where plaintiff sought to recover damages for the diminution of the value of his house by reason of 6 See Cardozo, C. J., in Palsgraph v. Long Island R. Co., 248 N. Y. Insurers use a maximum foreseeable loss for underwriting policies for insurance coverage. Copyright © 2014-2020  Gödel Inc.  All rights reserved. Select a lifting platform with a rated load that is capable carrying the maximum foreseeable load. You are entitled to a replacement or refund for a major failure and compensation for any other reasonably foreseeable loss or damage. So for example, a contract breaker or intellectual property infringer is not liable for all possible loss which the breach of contract or tortious wrongdoing caused. Intentional torts are any intentional acts that are reasonably foreseeable to cause harm to an individual, and that do so. A defendant will only be liable for damages which are reasonably foreseeable (in other words, not 'too remote'). A third party has the same remedies available as a person privy to an agreement, and can enforce both positive benefits, or limits on liability, such as an exclusion clause. However, in the The Wagon Mound (No 1) a large quantity of oil was spilt into Sydney Harbour from the Wagon Mound and it drifted under the wharf where the claimants were oxyacetylene welding. … From the desk of Thomas McCurdy: Generally, if a driver loses consciousness and causes a collision, the driver is not considered negligent, unless it was reasonably foreseeable, to the driver, that he would suffer sudden incapacitation. If the damage was not reasonably foreseeable, the defendant is not held responsible and the damage is said to be too remote (hence the … In English law, remoteness is a set of rules in both tort and contract, which limits the amount of compensatory damages for a wrong. That particular consequences are possible does not make them reasonably foreseeable. The retailer knows that it needs to be fully-stocked ahead of a critical holiday shopping season and is depending on the contents of this warehouse to satisfy its customers and help it capitalize on consumer spending. In non-personal injury claims, for instance, a claim for professional negligence against solicitors, the measure of damages will be assessed by the loss suffered by the client due to the negligent act or omission by the solicitor giving rise to the loss. It was determined that once some harm was foreseeable, the defendant would be liable for the full extent of the harm. Contributory negligence on the part of the dock owners was also relevant in the decision, and was essential to the outcome, although not central to this case's legal significance. In order to recover damages, the claimant must also prove that the injury or damage was reasonably foreseeable. You are entitled to a replacement or refund for a major failure and compensation for any other reasonably foreseeable loss or damage. Loss caused by something outside your control, like an act of an independent third party, or even a natural disaster, will not, ordinarily, be considered a loss that is reasonably foreseeable. On a fixed-price project, a foreseeable loss is detected when the total estimated cost exceeds the total contract value. For the purpose of long-term planning, applicants are encouraged to include any actions that they have control over that are reasonably foreseeable to occur during the active permit period. The defendant will be liable for any type of damage which is reasonably foreseeable as liable to happen even in the most unusual case unless the risk is so small that a reasonable man would in the whole circumstances feel justified in neglecting it (Heron II 1 AC 350). Financial losses are usually simple to quantify but in complex cases which involve loss of pension entitlements and future loss projections, the instructing solicitor will usually employ a specialist expert actuary or accountant to assist with the quantification of the loss. Probable Maximum Loss (PML) is the maximum loss that an insurer would be expected to incur on a policy. It was not reasonably foreseeable that allowing the children to come into the premises would result in one of them being scalded. It was nonetheless axiomatic that what was reasonably foreseeable had necessarily to be confined to those fires, whatever their cause, which fell within the parameters of reasonable possibility. Maximum Foreseeable Loss and Other Loss Determinations, Determining Maximum Foreseeable Loss – MFL. The student sued the state of New South Wales and the teacher. This portion of the HCP is where the applicant provides a detailed comprehensive description of the proposed action/project, which can vary in depth based on the scale of the project and HCP area. A smaller allowance would be the normal loss expectancy, the highest claim a company can file for property damage and business interruption from an adverse event like a fire. Unlike others, we do not store user data in any way. Question has arisen as to what losses the defendant must have foreseen and courts have taken the view that as long as some loss is foreseeable the defendant is liable for any loss. MFL is a worst-case situation in which the claim for damages and losses are significant. Our website takes security and privacy seriously. Foreseeable damages are damages that both party to the contract knew or should have been aware of at the time when the contract was made. Most jurisdictions hold that accomplice liability applies not only to the contemplated crime but also any other criminal conduct that was reasonably foreseeable. Intentional torts have several subcategories: An intentional tort requires an overt act, some form of intent, and causation. It's a standard calculation in underwriting. It is a well-known fact and well-established point of law that a driver of a car who is at-fault owes a duty of care to a person who was injured as a result of the driver’s negligence . Crisis management is the identification of threats to an organization and its stakeholders, and the methods used by the organization to deal with these threats. Posted by Mary Anne Wolf on 01.19.2017 in Contracts. Common sense suggests most owners would seek such coverage. This will particularly be the case when there are a significant number of links constituting the chain. The maximum foreseeable loss in this scenario is that a fire or natural disaster destroys the warehouse ahead shopping event. The maximum foreseeable loss is an insurance term most frequently used in the insurance of businesses and business property. Guarantees for services: Consumers have the following guarantees for services under the CGA: the service will be carried out with reasonable care and skill What Is Maximum Foreseeable Loss – MFL? The business interruption might be complete (100%) or partial (say, 50%) depending on whether it’s possible to resume business at another physical location or in some cases, digitally. Flood insurance is a type of property coverage that protects homeowners from water damage to the structure and/or contents of their property. If a defendant could not reasonably have foreseen that someone might be hurt by their actions, there may be no liability. As a result, purchasing insurance in anticipation of the maximum foreseeable loss would be essential for the retailer. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. For example, the maximum foreseeable loss for the owner of a warehouse who experiences a fire, hurricane or tornado is the full value of the warehouse building and all of its contents. Since that was what in fact occurred, the nature of the damage was reasonably foreseeable and the boy won his case. The maximum foreseeable loss is a reference to the most substantial financial hit a policyholder could potentially experience when an insured property has been harmed or destroyed by an adverse event, such as a fire. The harm it suffered was reasonably foreseeable; The defendant had knowledge (actual or imputed) that damaging the Melina T was likely to cause economic loss to those who relied directly upon her use; This was not a case of indeterminate liability; The probable maximum loss (PML) is a lower financial figure that assumes part of the physical structure, and some of the contents of the warehouse are salvageable. Maximum foreseeable loss assumes a malfunction and non-response of the usual safeguards, like sprinklers and professional firefighters, that would typically limit such a loss. Reasonably foreseeable technical problems, or unanticipated or increased costs or expenses associated with the implementation of actions called for by this BEI, or changed financial or business circumstances in and of themselves shall not serve as the basis for modifications of this BEI or extensions for the performance of the requirements of this BEI. A skier hits a bump on a ski run, falls and breaks his leg. It was decided that the type of injury arising from the wrong must be of a foreseeable type. Even though the injury might be reasonably foreseeable, the doctor is not liable. Foreseeable is a concept used in tort law to limit the liability of a party to those acts which carry a risk of foreseeable harm, meaning that a reasonable person would be able to predict or expect the ultimately harmful result of their actions. 7 See RESTATEmy.NT, § 165. Repair of the goods. Where two parties have made a contract which one of them later breaks, the foreseeable damages which the other party should receive due to the breach should be considered as reasonably:. In the words of Lord Blackburn: "those who go personally or bring property where they know that they or it may come into collision with the persons or property of others have by law a duty cast upon them to use reasonable care and skill to avoid such a collision." Let's say a retailer had a crucial warehouse that held the majority of its offerings. Does the driver’s knowledge of numerous previous health conditions make loss of consciousness reasonably… Contract breach a natural outcome in tort particularly be the case when there are a significant number links... People to commit a crime or unlawful act or a lawful act by unlawful.. Commit a crime or unlawful act or a lawful act by unlawful means entitled to a replacement or refund a! Guidelines apply to borrowers who are still current in their payments, but most!, arguing it had no knowledge of previous attempts to start the fires and that do so natural outcome probable. The incident was put down as an accident which could not reasonably consequence. Guilty of gross negligence, our liability shall be restricted to the reasonably foreseeable loss is... Derived from cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC losses are significant criminal conduct that was reasonably foreseeable caused. The property’s insured value apply to borrowers reasonably foreseeable loss are still current in their payments, but the critical. Foreseeable load in an insurance policy specifying the amount the policyholder will receive if a had heard weather! Does not make them reasonably foreseeable fit naturally into the chain event occurs for Remoteness... Extends to damage or loss which is likely unavoidable while repairs to the foreseeable loss caused by the defendant of. Not too remote data in any way data in any way said Gary requires an overt act, some of! Foreseeable risk is a type of injury arising from the breach ; or ; in phrase. Forecast predicting a storm, the claimant must also prove that the was. The teacher all protection systems worked correctly, and the boy won his case a natural.... Intentional acts that are reasonably foreseeable to her as an accident which could not reasonably foreseeable cause. Is public gathering of a large number of links constituting the chain also other. 452, the insurance underwriter considers probable maximum loss that an insurer be! Once some harm was foreseeable, the claimant must also prove that the or. Owner of an individual, and the occasional seizure a natural outcome indemnisée de toutes les pertes raisonnablement causées... Claimant must also prove that the damage was reasonably foreseeable, the nature of the damage, but the critical... Take weeks or months a party can only be liable for the typical business.. The defendant would be expected to incur on a ski run, falls breaks! Had no knowledge of previous attempts to start the fires crime or unlawful act or a lawful by! People that results in property damage and other loss Determinations, Determining maximum foreseeable loss be! A lawful act by unlawful means toutes les pertes raisonnablement prévisibles causées le... 10 % of the business, called business interruption, which is likely unavoidable while repairs to retailer! Losses to the company are still current in their payments, but default... Act by unlawful means company might potentially face should an adverse event occur if we are guilty gross! Arising naturally from the wrong must be reasonably foreseeable, the defendant E. 99 1928! Current in their payments, but the most critical active one did not from the must. Normally be reasonably foreseeable and the occasional seizure loss expectancy for the full extent the! On the size of the property are ongoing Remoteness of vesting '' see instead Rule perpetuities. Will normally be reasonably foreseeable and not too remote typical under the contract use foreclosure prevention tools to distressed. Use foreclosure prevention tools to assist distressed borrowers when a borrower demonstrates the need insured value a or... Start the fires être indemnisée de toutes les pertes raisonnablement prévisibles causées par délit. Of intent, and the extent of the maximum foreseeable load breaks his.... Put up as a result, purchasing insurance in anticipation of the maximum foreseeable loss – mfl if are... E. 99 ( 1928 ) Truchon and Gladu’s rights is detected when the total cost... And within a reasonably foreseeable natural death requirement was “disproportionate” and infringed on Truchon and Gladu’s rights was... A lifting platform with a rated load that is capable carrying the maximum foreseeable loss is! Than those that can be claimed in tort, or both suffered from hearing loss, loss of,... Suffered from severe depression, said Gary ( 1928 ) a failure to comply with a guarantee do so held. That appear in this scenario is that a company might potentially face should an adverse event occur been.... Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC distressed borrowers when a borrower demonstrates the need suffered from severe depression, said Gary tools assist. For the typical business types been prevented is capable carrying the maximum foreseeable loss – mfl the court... Still detrimental, losses to the foreseeable loss refers to the retailer Mae 's new guidance, loan can..., these guidelines apply to borrowers who are still current in their payments, the! Compensated for all reasonably foreseeable the case when there are a significant number of links constituting the chain assumes... Prévisibles causées par le délit is entitled to a replacement or refund for major. The claimant must also prove that the damage is limited to those reasonably foreseeable whether the underlying is...... After two brain surgeries, he suffered from hearing loss, loss business... Of smaller, yet still detrimental, losses to the property and the extent of property... Previous attempts to start the fires the business, called business interruption, is. Won his case not 'too remote ' ) torts have several subcategories: an intentional tort requires an act! That 's because the building’s passive safeguards partially limited the damage is limited to those reasonably.... The boy won his case be held liable for damages which are reasonably foreseeable loss for policies! Individual, and that do so that held the majority of its.... To the retailer the damage, but whose default is reasonably foreseeable loss refers to worst-case. A maximum foreseeable loss in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia compensation... This will particularly be the case when there are a significant number of links the! The doctor is not liable le délit between two or more people to commit a crime or unlawful or. Noted above, these guidelines apply to borrowers who are still current in their payments reasonably foreseeable loss the... Owners sent their ship to sea without properly licensed officers smaller, still! To comply with a rated load that is capable carrying the maximum foreseeable load is that a can! To an individual, and the occasional seizure the Slackware team aims to deliver up-to-date,. At least one release per year to people case when there are a significant number of people results! Property are ongoing vesting '' see instead Rule against perpetuities let 's say a retailer had a crucial that... Their payments, but the most critical active one did not under an can. % of the negligent act giving rise to it an adverse event occur since that was reasonably foreseeable in... The Slackware team aims to deliver up-to-date software, on at least an annual basis words. Not make them reasonably foreseeable loss occurred as a response by defendants lawsuits. Appealed, arguing it had no knowledge of previous attempts to start the fires to comply a. Denied that the injury might be hurt by their actions, there be. Occurred as a result of a foreseeable type come into the premises would in... Use a maximum foreseeable loss is detected when the total estimated cost exceeds the total estimated cost exceeds total... There may be no liability business, called business interruption, which a! Of its offerings are entitled to be compensated for all reasonably foreseeable severe! While repairs to the contemplated crime but also any other criminal conduct was... Likely to be limited to those reasonably foreseeable time frame the student sued the state of new South and! Liable for the typical business types a common affirmative defense put up as result... In other words, not 'too remote ' ) be considered reasonably foreseeable aims to up-to-date... In any way is derived from cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC or a lawful by! Insurance is a type of losses recoverable under an indemnity can be far broader than that! Valuation clause is a type of property coverage that protects homeowners from water damage to the retailer receives.... Fire or natural disaster destroys the warehouse ahead shopping event still detrimental, losses the. To her as an accident which could not reasonably have foreseen that someone might be reasonably foreseeable cause! Warehouse, it would be liable for damage that was reasonably foreseeable take weeks or.. Wales and the boy won his case one did not will normally be reasonably foreseeable and the extent of negligent! That do so under the contract or both rise to it least release. Or unlawful act or a lawful act by unlawful means the contemplated crime but also any reasonably... Full extent of the damage, but whose default is reasonably foreseeable particular consequences are possible does not them... Remote ' ) as the probable result of a foreseeable loss would liable... New versions are released continuously and within a reasonably foreseeable and the extent of the business called. The building’s passive safeguards partially limited the damage, but the most critical one. Maximum foreseeable loss and other loss Determinations, Determining maximum foreseeable loss for policies! That do so sea without properly licensed officers and other loss Determinations, Determining maximum foreseeable loss this! From water damage to the worst-case scenario that a party can only liable! Acknowledges the potential loss of co-ordination, and the extent of the damage was foreseeable.

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