Here also the Jewish, Greek thoughts are at variance. Hence philosophies of religion, which human reason began to build up, could think of God only as a concept, rationally outward but not inward to man. Broadly, speaking, Western society strives to find and prove "the truth", while Eastern society accepts the truth as given and is more interested in finding the balance.  Socrates developed a critical approach, now called the Socratic method, to examine people's views. The greatest contribution that Philo made to Jewish thought was tell man that the significance of ethical conduct does not lie in the realm of politics and society but in the inward being of man. Man’s physical existence is a result of his Karmas and Samskaras. Western philosophy is primarily rationalistic and intellectualistic with reason assuming more importance than matter making it scientific and outward looking. (2) To introduce Rationalism and Empiricism as modern epistemological theories and The old humanist education taught all that it knew about the civilization of ancient Greece and Rome, and taught little else.  It asserts that the truth of beliefs consists in their usefulness and efficacy rather than their correspondence with reality.  Leucippus and Democritus proposed atomism as an explanation for the fundamental nature of the universe. Fund, By  Aristotle proposed the four causes model to explain change - material, efficient, formal, and final - all of which were grounded on what Aristotle termed the unmoved mover. 20th century philosophy was set for a series of attempts to reform and preserve, and to alter or abolish, older knowledge systems. Characteristics of Western philosophy - eSamskriti Contemporary philosophy - Wikipedia Modern Western Philosophy 3 Core Course-12 4 Credits Aim:To present the characteristics of Modern Western Thought and to give an account of the systems of thought of modern thinkers.  They are neither exhaustive nor mutually exclusive. It must not be thought that there was no philosophy of the Spirit but that was the gift of the Greeks to Islam, and through Islam to Christianity. Western philosophy is primarily rationalistic and intellectualistic with reason assuming more importance than matter... 3. In India, we believe that there is an eternal consciousness in man that is common to every individual, rich or poor. Since the usefulness of any belief at any time might be contingent on circumstance, Peirce and James conceptualized final truth as something established only by the future, final settlement of all opinion. Jonathan Barnes called atomism "the culmination of early Greek thought". [See Cyril Smith’s article: Some Communist Reflections on Philosophy.] A central theme of German idealism, the legitimacy of Kant's "Copernican revolution", remains an important point of contention in 21st-century post-continental philosophy. The loss of hope was countered by the entry of Jewish thought into the West. A naturalistic approach towards religion can be inward and outward. Plotinus interpreted the world as an overflowing of the being of the spirit, the One.  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